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Stephen Kraft

Title: Staff Ophthalmologist, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences
Designations: MD, FRCSC, DOphSci, DABO
Fax: 416-813-5159
External Email:
Alternate Contact Name: Lynn Huang
Alternate Phone: 416-813-6123 ext. 406123
Alternate Email:
U of T Positions: Professor, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences
Other Positions: Representative, Medical Staff Committee and Physicians Services Association, Department of Ophthalmology & Vision Sciences

Hospital Positions

Staff Physician and Surgeon, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences

Research Positions

Project Investigator, Program in Neurosciences & Mental Health


Dr. Kraft has been a full-time academic ophthalmologist at SickKids since 1982. He is cross-appointed to the Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences the University Health Network. He is on courtesy staff at the Thunder Bay Regional Hospital where once or twice per year he runs clinics and provides surgical care in paediatric ophthalmology. He is an internationally-known specialist in problems of eye muscle balance (strabismus), binocular vision, and amblyopia ("lazy eyes") in both children and adults.

Kraft has been an invited lecturer throughout the world, including Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain, United States, the Middle East, Singapore, India, Scandinavia, and South America. He has authored or co-authored 121 peer-reviewed publications in the literature and 46 book chapters, and he has given 402 presentations at meetings and formal rounds and webinars. He has been a visiting professor to institutions on 53 occasions. His services have been solicited from all provinces in Canada, as well as from countries in the Caribbean, Middle East, South America, Asia, and Europe.


Kraft has research interests in problems of eye muscle balance (strabismus), binocular vision, and amblyopia ("lazy eyes") in both children and adults. He has published 111 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 46 book chapters on a wide range of topics in these areas. These subjects include reasons why children develop eye muscle problems and how their eyes learn to work together, variations in the anatomy of the eye muscles and the eye sockets and how they affect the eye muscle balance, and how to diagnose various eye muscle conditions. He has also pioneered surgical approaches to treat unusual and difficult strabismus problems. Kraft has collaborated on numerous projects including recent work on the success of adjustable suture eye muscle surgery, prevention of infections after eye muscle surgery, and also the demographics of strabismus care in Ontario.

Education and experience

  • 1979–1982: Residency in Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
  • 1982–1984: Fellowships in paediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA and Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
  • 1982–present: Staff Ophthalmologist, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
  • 1984–present: Staff Ophthalmologist, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University Health Network, Toronto, ON
  • 1984–2021: Consultant Ophthalmologist, Bloorview Kids Rehab Hospital, Toronto, ON
  • 1996–present: Courtesy Staff, Dept. of Surgery, Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, ON
  • 2001–present: Professor, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto


  • 2018-2022: Chair, Lectureship and Awards Committee of ISA
  • 2002-08 and 2014-22:  Executive Board of the International Strabismological Association (ISA)
  • 1999: Election to membership in the Association for Research in Strabismus (“Squint Club”) - an international group of esteemed eye muscle experts from around the world. It is limited to 30 individuals at any one time and Dr. Kraft is the only Canadian member.
  • 1998: Honor Award of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) for long-term contributions to professional education in pediatric ophthalmology
  • 1998: Honor Award of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) for long-term contributions to education in ophthalmology
  • 1994–1996: Chair, Canadian Orthoptic Council
  • 1988–2016: Corresponding Member, Royal College of Surgeons of Canada examination committee for Ophthalmology


  1. Connor AJ, Kraft SP: Intraoperative intorsional traction test of the inferior oblique. Eye 2018; 32: 384 - 90. (CPA) (published on-line Sept. 15, 2017: doi:10.1038/eye.2017.200)
  2. Szigiato AA, Caldwell M, Buys YM, Kraft SP, Mireskandari K: Population trends in adult strabismus surgery. Can J Ophthalmol 2019; 54: 501 - 508. (CPA) 
  3. Simonsz HJ, Thiadens AAHJ, Kraft S, et al. Endophthalmitis after strabismus surgery: Incidence and outcome in relation to age, operated eye muscle, surgical technique, scleral perforation, and immune state.  Acta Ophthalmologica 2020; vol 98. (COL)
  4. Kraft SP: The functional benefits of adult strabismus surgery – It is not cosmetic! Acta Estrabológica 2020; 49: 1 – 8.
  5. Leahy K, Ali A, Kraft SP: Ocular motility disturbances after glaucoma drainage device implantation for paediatric glaucoma: a cross-sectional study. Br J Ophthalmol 2020; vol 104. (COL) On-line citation:
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